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  PHASE 4
From 2030
  In the fourth phase, starting in 2030, manufacturers and providers will begin to scale up their business models and expand them to other cities and regions.
As their ranges grow and charging times shorten, drones will become increasingly wide- spread. According to conserva- tive projections, the potential
is for sixteen cities worldwide by 2035, with more progres- sive estimates ranging up to sixty-four cities. The costs for individual passenger flights of- fered in two- to eight-seat units will be in the premium range and only marginally higher than for comparable taxi rides. There will be little displacement of other means of transportation such as cars or buses; air taxis will be just another option in the mobility mix.
Testing
PHASE 2
2022-2025
Growth Use
PHASE 3
From 2025
  In the second phase, the goal is validation of the concepts on initial test routes. Pioneering cities like Singa- pore, Dubai, Dallas, Melbourne, and São Paolo will provide start and landing sites as well as limited air corridors. In these test locations, air taxis will have to demonstrate that they represent a useful complement to the existing mobility mix and thus more than simply an elec- tric alternative to helicopters. To demonstrate their added value for society as a whole and not just wealthy individuals, manufacturers and governing bodies must underscore the broad utility of eVTOLs, for example through police drones, emergency service deploy- ments, or organ transplants.
One important factor for
the attractiveness of drone flights is the accessibility
and number of start and landing sites in the cities.
Step by step, an adequate infrastructure must be es- tablished at transport nodes, railway stations, and high-rise rooftops; parking garages must be provided and vertical mo- bility must be integrated with public and private, ground- based transportation options. The goal of integrated control is to optimize traffic flow and lighten the burden at neural- gic points. Reliable service
will also depend on having a sufficient number of stations for charging the batteries as well as an air traffic monitoring system with trained personnel to ensure safety.
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